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YL Blog #50 – Expansion of the Hawaiʻi National Guard’s State Partnership Program to Combat Indonesia’s Food Insecurity

Background: The State Partnership Program

The State Partnership Program Overview

Since 1992, the United States Department of Defense’s (DoD) State Partnership Program (SPP) has served as one of the cornerstones for building and sustaining 88 meaningful partnerships around the world that share values for common prosperity.[1] Using partnerships between state-level National Guard Bureau (NGB) units and militaries of sovereign nations in each region of the world, the SPP facilitates security cooperation and addresses regional issues across a multitude of civil-military domains. Engagements in the program include subject matter expert exchanges, capability familiarizations, joint drills, and senior leader visits.[2]

Through the SPP, the NGB supports national defense and security goals while also building whole-of-society partnerships to further regional security and stability.[3] The SPP exists to improve the capabilities of partner nations and protect their citizens; strengthen relationships with partners to facilitate cooperation, access, and interoperability; improve cultural awareness and skills among United States military personnel; and foster the integration of reserve and active component forces into a “total force.”[4]

The NGB initiatives are not limited to military engagements alone. They include support for economic, diplomatic, and social programs that are designed to alleviate localized partner challenges indicating potential for civil-military incorporation. Notably, the SPP uses the National Guard’s competencies in humanitarian, crisis response, and disaster relief missions to further security cooperation and enhance stability in foreign counterparts. In the Indo-Pacific, this yields significant potential to strengthen the U.S.’s ties with foreign governments and better position itself to respond to conflict in the region.[5][6]

As of 2023, the NGB has partnered with Indo-Pacific countries of Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Fiji, Samoa, and Vietnam with Hawaii as the partner of the Philippines and Indonesia.[7] In particular, the Hawaiian National Guard’s partnership with Indonesia represents an example of the program’s success in the Indo-Pacific region. Since 2006, the U.S. has used the SPP to foster deep and long-lasting relationships with the vital Pacific nation. A major aspect of the partnership is Gema Bhakti, a decade-old annual exercise where Soldiers from both countries meet to share best practices and display capabilities for bilateral benefit.[8]

The Opportunity for State Partnership Program Expansion

The United States Government demonstrates its intent to maintain and expand its global posture in the Indo-Pacific Region to counter the People’s Republic of China’s (PRC) direct attempts to alter global order in its favor. In the 2022 National Defense Strategy and the 2022 Indo-Pacific Strategy, the DoD argues that the PRC is working to undermine U.S. partnerships with Indo-Pacific states, not just militarily, but in diplomatic, technological, and economic spheres as well. As a result of this heightened aggression, the United States’ strategy involves a diversified expansion of its global posture.

The methods proposed to accomplish this goal extend beyond the usual military approaches, such as interoperability, capabilities sharing, and force projection. In combination with those efforts, the DoD plans to leverage collaboration in key infrastructure investments, economics, intelligence sharing, health, technology, climate change, and diplomatic outreach. The SPP can supplement recent efforts by the Biden Administration by developing pre-existing military-to-military ties to achieve foreign policy goals, in addition to strategic military objectives. As these engagements become common practice and mature in sophistication and outreach, they have the potential to further incorporate military-to-civilian channels and offer opportunities for civilian-to-civilian and business-to-business partnerships between countries.

As a pre-existing channel for the U.S. to strengthen ties with Indo-Pacific partners, the SPP can act as a conduit for partnership expansion in the region. As National Guardsmen are employed domestically for disaster relief, emergency management, and humanitarian missions, they inherently carry expertise and equipment which lends well to solving similar crises in partner countries.

Countries that face the risks of natural disasters, are in the process of economic development, or experience internal conflicts will benefit greatly from these effects. The security of these countries is, by default, systematically vulnerable because of their propensity to these disasters and conflict. By taking a proactive approach to address these issues, the United States can foster increased collaboration with its partners while simultaneously reducing the need for future humanitarian responses.

Further, these efforts will complement the ongoing work of key organizations such as the United States Department of State (DOS), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in achieving their goals and objectives. According to estimates from the USDA, approximately 11% of American agricultural producers either serve in the military in a reserve capacity or have a military service background.[9] These producers contribute significantly to the agricultural industry, accounting for $41 billion in agricultural sales.[10] Moreover, 17% of all farms have a producer who is currently serving or has served in the U.S. Armed Forces.[11] The USDA recognizes the valuable experience and skills that military personnel bring to the field of agriculture and has implemented specialized programs to integrate military experience with careers in farming. These programs provide access to capital, land, education, and training resources, as well as business planning support.

Similarly, USAID maintains a strong collaborative relationship with the DoD, ensuring that their development and defense efforts mutually reinforce each other and help partner countries achieve outcomes aligned with U.S. national security goals and partner values. Through coordination with the DoD, USAID brings together a diverse team of foreign service, civil service, military, and technical professionals.[12] USAID also hosts military liaisons from the U.S. Navy and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, as well as sponsors U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps fellows to support environmental reform initiatives that have an impact on agriculture.[13] These joint efforts allow for equitable collaboration on policy, planning, outreach, and education, with the U.S. Indo-Pacific Command area of operations currently serving as the primary focus of the USAID-DoD partnership.[14]

Therefore, it is important to note that, by leveraging the SPP, interagency partners across a broad whole-of-government spectrum can incorporate and facilitate proactive disaster relief and humanitarian response to assist developing countries. This is possible through a consolidated effort, thereby promoting economic growth, enhancing regional security, and promoting stability in the Indo-Pacific Region.

Case Study: Indonesia’s Food Insecurity

Indonesian Food Security Issues

Indonesia plays a vital role in maintaining stability and security in the Indo-Pacific region, and it is a key partner to the United States. Indonesia is the fourth largest country by population and engages in an annual $30 billion in trade with the U.S.[15] With a $100 million yearly budget for Indonesia, USAID leads several programs aimed to improve the country in terms of democratic governance, anti-corruption, climate and the environment, economic growth, education, and health.[16] The relationship between the two countries showcases strong engagement and cooperation, particularly in the security domain. The United States holds a prominent position as Indonesia’s largest security partner, with estimated pre-COVID engagements exceeding 200 annually.[17] The engagements between the United States and Indonesia encompass a wide range of activities, but the most prominent are military exercises.[18] These highlight the depth and breadth of the partnership and the United States’ commitment to supporting Indonesia’s security and sovereignty in the region.

Domestically, however, Indonesia faces significant challenges in achieving a sustainable food-secure environment; the Global Food Security Index places Indonesia at 63 out of 113 countries worldwide.[19]      Indonesia recognizes this issue as its primary human security concern and has worked diligently to address domestic food security. Currently, the Widodo administration’s focus on food security is inward-looking and centered on food distribution and increasing rice production.[20] However, the Indonesian agriculture industry as a whole faces inefficiency of scale and is unable to uphold the pillars of food security i.e., availability, accessibility, utilization, and stability.[21] Major barriers to establishing a sustainable food-secure environment in Indonesia are limited infrastructure, little access to educational resources, conflicts involving water rights, natural disasters, risk mitigation for crop preservation, and land security.[22] Without resources and strategies to address the aforementioned challenges, Indonesia struggles as a food-insecure country and is unable to ensure a sustainable and resilient agricultural sector.

State of Hawaii and Food Security

Hawaii has struggled with its own food security concerns in the past and continues to import 80% of its food.[23] This heavy reliance on external sources leaves Hawaii vulnerable to food availability concerns in the event of disruptions in the food supply chain, such as natural disasters or pandemics. Recognizing these vulnerabilities, the Hawaii Emergency Management Agency has identified logistics, education, environmental protection, and critical infrastructure as key areas that enable an archipelagic state to remain in a food-secure status.[24] To further mitigate the effects of food insecurity, Hawaii leverages the logistical competencies and environmental policies set forth by the Hawaii NGB through successful civil-military integration efforts.[25]

The Hawaii Army National Guard Environmental Office is a major proponent and subject matter expert for policy, technical means, and guidance on environmental stewardship for the State of Hawaii.[26] The State Adjutant General’s environmental policy focuses on conservation, compliance, land management, and sustainability.[27] The NGB performs endangered and native species protection, pest management, pollution prevention, waste stream diversions, green purchasing, and sustainable operations that employ water conservation, and fuel and energy efficiency.[28] [29] Examples that showcase the NGB’s environmental policies include a cost and resource-effective goat and sheep grazing technique for pest management, which slashed the use of herbicides to safeguard agricultural land from adverse chemical impacts. [30] Another example is a sustainability program that focuses on waste stream reduction and recycling activities that are programmed as project goals.[31] This program also conducts stormwater management, integrates natural resources management, builds safe drinking water plants, supports emergency management operations, and aids in energy conservation.[32]

The NGB showcases logistical expertise in key areas that affect agriculture and food supply. These include the acquisition of agricultural raw materials, tracking and distribution of food resources, farm asset management, fuel supply in rural areas, and forward deployment of survival equipment.[33] Additionally, during critical times of need, such as natural disasters or health emergencies, the NGB coordinates and delivers aid to communities regionally. The NGB logisticians are skilled above and beyond conventional military force parameters as they are industry experts with specialized military training. Their individualized skills include supply chain management, food services, petroleum systems management, airdrop and rigging specialties, water treatment proficiency, and laboratory proficiency.[34] Therefore, the NGB can impact dimensions of food security that promote availability, accessibility, utilization, and stability. By sharing the State of Hawaii’s environmental policies and logistical performance with partners in developing countries, food insecurity and hunger can be alleviated in similar archipelagic nations throughout Indo-Pacific.[35]

The Indonesian Military’s Efforts to Address Food Security

The Indonesian Armed Forces, Tentara Nasional Indonesia (TNI), plays a supervisory role in local villages and agricultural communities, working in alignment with Indonesia’s agricultural development agenda.[36] However, corruption within civil enterprises, stigma against civil-military integration, and the TNI’s history of human rights abuses have tarnished the reputation of the military as an agent of positive change.[37] Further, Indonesia’s food security challenges stem, in part, from internal inefficiencies and the lack of robust agricultural policy. Limited distribution and diversification of resources hinder the government’s ability to increase agricultural yield, failing to effectively address agricultural production challenges. Addressing these challenges to improve food security in Indonesia requires comprehensive strategies and the allocation of adequate resources.

Indonesia recognizes the inseparable relationship between food sovereignty, security, and national stability. Jakarta acknowledges the successful utilization of military operations other than war, particularly in Indo-Pacific states like Hawaii, where infrastructure and logistical elements of their armed forces have bolstered their civilian sectors, like agriculture.[38] Since the 1960s, the TNI has attempted to safeguard the agricultural industry, collaborating with the U.S. on initiatives, such as the Green Revolution project.[39] Consequently, food security has become a significant aspect of national defense, making it a key focus for the Indonesian military.[40] Tasked with ensuring regional stability, the TNI’s mission extends to the agricultural domain and supporting national food security. However, despite fifty years of dedicated efforts, plagued by logistical inefficiencies and implementation challenges, the intended results of achieving food security remain elusive, and the issue of food insecurity persists.[41]

According to Indonesian National Defense Law No. 34 of 2004, the army is authorized to undertake defense responsibilities on land.[42] In 2015, the president granted the TNI an active role in advising and assisting farmers by providing insights on best agricultural practices and infrastructure development. This agreement serves as the legal foundation for the TNI’s ongoing civil-military integration efforts, which take the form of a territorial coaching system aimed at addressing food insecurity. Through this program, TNI soldiers procure and distribute high-yield seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides and develop irrigation infrastructure to support farmers.[43] However, due to paradigmatic misconception of food security and food sovereignty, Jakarta has invested in improper policy which disproportionately focuses on agricultural production versus trade.[44] This policy is currently being implemented by the TNI. Additionally, collaboration with Western technology partners, similar to the Green Revolution project, is a significant component of this strategy, introducing genetically enhanced farming aids to Indonesia. Consequently, this increased reliance on foreign companies contributes to Indonesia’s foreign debt and undermines the authority of local villages. Overall, the current strategy inefficiently diverts financial benefits away from the farmers. The desired goal of grassroots self-sufficiency remains unachieved, with the current approach primarily benefiting large-scale landowners.

Despite widespread corruption, the TNI enjoys acceptance in Indonesia as an organization guided by professional values and considers the promotion of food security as one of its primary contributions to national security. Nonetheless, it faces significant challenges in integrating with the civilian sector and meeting the standards set by the Ministry of Agriculture. While the TNI focuses on educating and facilitating farmers to achieve self-sufficiency, an essential logistical aspect i.e., distribution to enable trade for commodities, remains absent from Indonesia’s strategy. Although the Green Revolution briefly enabled Indonesia to be self-sufficient in food imports in the late 1980s,[45] the lack of proper transport mechanisms quickly strained its ability to access food markets, leading to financial challenges.

Potential for Military-to-Civilian Application: Past Examples

The SPP has demonstrated its potential to aid partners through real-world response situations and joint exercises. Notable examples below highlight the effectiveness of the SPP in providing critical support during times of crisis:

In September 2014, the Guam and Hawaii National Guard collaborated with the Armed Forces of the Philippines to respond to the devastation caused by Typhoon Haiyan. This humanitarian disaster claimed the lives of over six thousand people and displaced many more. The SPP between the United States and the Philippines, established in 2001 and one of the most active partnerships within the National Guard, had already laid the foundation for civil-military assistance through numerous exercises and events over the course of a decade. When Typhoon Haiyan struck, the coordination and efficiency achieved through the SPP proved invaluable in providing aid to a nation in desperate need of basic necessities, such as food, water, and shelter.[46] The level of coordination required in responding to a natural disaster mirrors the challenges associated with addressing food security.

In May 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, in response to a major food availability crisis, the Ohio National Guard mobilized four hundred soldiers to support regional food banks and warehouses, serving residents in eighty-eight counties across the state. The pandemic had caused economic uncertainty and severely affected the ability of families and individuals across the United States to afford and access food.[47] This logistical support demonstrates the NGB’s commitment to ensuring that necessities, including food and water, are available to those in need.

In September 2022, the United States Military and the TNI conducted the tenth annual joint operational-level staff exercise called Gema Bhakti in Jakarta, Indonesia. Gema Bhakti is aimed at promoting positive military relations, enhancing security and stability in the region, increasing cultural awareness, and improving command and control proficiency among forces. This exercise brought together over a hundred military and interagency personnel from U.S. Indo-Pacific Command and the Hawaii National Guard, along with TNI operators and a diverse cohort of non-governmental agencies.[48] This collaborative exercise showcases the successful integration and interoperability between Indonesia and the State of Hawaii, highlighting their joint commitment to effective operations in the security domain.

The SPP’s Potential to Enhance Food Security in Indonesia

These examples demonstrate how the SPP can play a significant role in bolstering the logistical capabilities of Indonesia’s agriculture industry. Through joint exercises, disaster response, and coordinated efforts, the SPP can empower the TNI and, in turn, impact the agricultural industry to enhance production and trade, ultimately alleviating food security challenges in an equitable manner. Logistics is another crucial problem to solve, not only for military operations, but also for the agricultural sector. A successful logistical strategy is essential to ensure the smooth and efficient flow of agricultural goods and services from producers to consumers.[49] This involves data-driven decisions on production, procurement, storage, transportation, and distribution.[50] Effective supervision of these activities is vital to meet the demands of Indonesia’s food-insecure populace and address the challenges related to production and trade. Furthermore, reducing agricultural losses resulting from inefficiencies and promoting environmentally conscious agricultural policies are equally important objectives. By achieving these goals, the Indonesian agricultural industry can contribute to food security and sustainability.

The SPP serves as a valuable platform for sharing logistical knowledge, enhancing coordination, and building capacity in combatting food insecurity to promote stability in the Indo-Pacific region. Through collaborative efforts facilitated by the SPP, the State of Hawaii and Indonesia can leverage their shared expertise and resources to strengthen food security and ensure the availability of basic necessities during times of crisis and peace alike. By working together, they can create value and address the needed competencies to support Indonesia’s agriculture industry and overall well-being.

Conclusion and Policy Recommendations

The SPP is a valuable platform for the United States to deepen its ties with Indo-Pacific partners, enhance security capacity, and reduce dependence on the PRC. The NGB’s capabilities in disaster relief, emergency management, and humanitarian missions, combined with the SPP’s military-to-military connections, allow for effective collaboration and the transfer of expertise to address crises in partner countries. This strengthens regional stability, fosters stronger relationships, and contributes to a more resilient and self-reliant network of allies in the Indo-Pacific region.

The Hawaii-Indonesian partnership serves as an excellent case study to prove the viability of SPP expansion to achieve these goals. The utilization of the SPP to address food insecurity in Indonesia will prove to be an effective tool to enhance the U.S.’s presence in the Indo-Pacific region in a role that transcends conventional military engagements. To effectively harness the potential of the SPP to address food insecurity in Indonesia, the United States and Indonesia must collaborate and establish a comprehensive policy that involves a whole-of-government commitment and outlines appropriate actions and a national plan.

To achieve this, the TNI should work in tandem and specifically engage with the Hawaii National Guard on environmental policy. The Hawaii National Guard should also guide the TNI in adopting and promoting human-centric, economically viable, and sustainable farming practices. This collaboration would facilitate the transfer of knowledge and skills necessary for Indonesia to enhance its agricultural sector. Furthermore, the cooperative infrastructure mechanisms established by the SPP can enable the United States to assist Indonesia in other areas that build security capacity such as technology, transportation, and distribution networks. By creating a viable trading network, supported by the provision of technology and transportation infrastructure, food loss can be minimized, and Indonesia can establish an independent agricultural commodities exchange. These effects would all contribute to the stability and security of the food supply chain in the region.

Additionally, through the industrialization of data collection and analysis facilitated by the NGB, technology and information transfers can greatly benefit the Indonesian agriculture sector.[51] This would enable the implementation of a national-level review process, allowing for the evaluation and improvement of agricultural practices across the country.[52] By fostering a collaborative approach guided by a comprehensive policy and the expertise of the NGB and Hawaii National Guard, the SPP can serve as a catalyst for resolving Indonesia’s food insecurity. Through the adoption of sustainable farming practices, establishment of viable logistical support, and utilization of technology and data analysis, Indonesia can enhance its agricultural capabilities and achieve greater food security.

The views expressed herein are those of the authors and are not to be construed as official or reflecting the views of the United States Army, United States Air Force, or United States Government.

Disclaimer: All opinions in this article are solely those of the author and do not represent any organization.

Sharoon Kashif is an Air Force intelligence officer who serves as a South Asia subject matter expert for the U.S. Indo-Pacific Command. He is also an alumnus of the Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies and has brought his diverse experience at the Harvard Project for Asian and International Relations Asia Conference in both 2022 and 2023. 

Caleb Workman is an Officer in the United States Army. He  graduated from the Colorado School of Mines,  where  he  earned  a  BS  in  economics,  an  MS  in  engineering  and  technology  management, and minors in global politics and military science.

[1] “State Partnership Program – The National Guard.” Accessed May 29, 2023. https://www.nationalguard.mil/leadership/joint-staff/j-5/international-affairs-division/state-partnership-program/.

[2] “The National Guard State Partnership Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress.” Congressional Research Service, August 15, 2011. https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R41957/5.

[3] “State Partnership Program – The National Guard.”

[4] “The National Guard State Partnership Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress.” Congressional Research Service, August 15, 2011. https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R41957/5.

[5] “The National Guard State Partnership Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress.”

[6] U.S. Department of Defense. “Building Partnerships Around the Globe.” Accessed May 29, 2023. https://www.defense.gov/Multimedia/Experience/Building-Partnerships-Around-the-Globe/.

[7] “Building Partnerships Around the Globe.”

[8]  National Guard. “Hawaii National Guard Joins Gema Bhakti with Partner Indonesia.” Accessed May 29, 2023. https://www.nationalguard.mil/News/State-Partnership-Program/Article/3153297/hawaii-national-guard-joins-gema-bhakti-with-partner-indonesia/https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nationalguard.mil%2FNews%2FArticle%2F3153297%2Fhawaii-national-guard-joins-gema-bhakti-with-partner-indonesia%2F.

[9] National Agricultural Statistics Service. Producers with Military Service. ACH17-22, United States Department of Agriculture, Nov. 2020, https://www.nass.usda.gov/Publications/Highlights/2020/census-military-producers.pdf.

[10] Farmers with Military Service Are Unsung Heroes of American Ag. https://www.usda.gov/media/blog/2023/05/01/farmers-military-service-are-unsung-heroes-american-ag. Accessed 19 June 2023.

[11] National Agricultural Statistics Service. Producers with Military Service. ACH17-22, United States Department of Agriculture, Nov. 2020, https://www.nass.usda.gov/Publications/Highlights/2020/census-military-producers.pdf.

[12] “Office of Civilian-Military Cooperation | Stabilization and Transitions.” U.S. Agency for International Development, 1 Mar. 2023, https://www.usaid.gov/about-us/organization/military.

[13] “Office of Civilian-Military Cooperation | Stabilization and Transitions.” U.S. Agency for International Development, 1 Mar. 2023, https://www.usaid.gov/about-us/organization/military.

[14] “Agriculture and Food Security.” U.S. Agency for International Development, 15 Mar. 2023, https://www.usaid.gov/agriculture-and-food-security.

[15] United States Trade Representative. “Indonesia.” Accessed July 20, 2023. http://ustr.gov/countries-regions/southeast-asia-pacific/indonesia.

[16] USAID. “Indonesia Country Profile,” n.d. https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/2023-04/USAID%20Indonesia%20Profile%202023_2_0.pdf.

[17] US Department of State. “Integrated Country Strategy – Indonesia.” Integrated Country Strategies, March 31, 2022. https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2022/06/ICS_EAP_Indonesia_Public.pdf.

[18] US Department of State, “Integrated Country Strategy – Indonesia.”

[19] Global Food Security Index (GFSI). “Global Food Security Index (GFSI),” February 7, 2023. https://impact.economist.com/sustainability/project/food-security-index.

[20] Canada, Asia Pacific Foundation of. “Indonesia’s Scheme to Ward Off Food Security Crisis Falls Short of Expectations.” Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada. Accessed July 20, 2023. https://www.asiapacific.ca/publication/indonesias-scheme-ward-food-security-crisis-falls-short.

[21] “Global Food Security Index (GFSI).”

[22] Rusmawati, Estiana, Djoni Hartono, and Adiwan Fahlan Aritenang. “Food Security in Indonesia: The Role of Social Capital.” Development Studies Research 10, no. 1 (December 31, 2023): 2169732. https://doi.org/10.1080/21665095.2023.2169732.

[23] Lyte, Brittany. “How Hawaii Squandered Its Food Security — And What It Will Take To Get It Back.” Honolulu Civil Beat, April 23, 2021. https://www.civilbeat.org/2021/04/how-hawaii-squandered-its-food-security-and-what-it-will-take-to-get-it-back/.

[24] “How Food Secure Are We If Natural Disaster Strikes? – Hawaii Sea Grant.” Accessed May 29, 2023. https://seagrant.soest.hawaii.edu/how-food-secure-are-we-if-natural-disaster-strikes/.

[25] “Natural Resources: U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii.” Accessed May 29, 2023. https://home.army.mil/hawaii/index.php/garrison/dpw/natural-resources#qt0:0.

[26] “Hawaii Army National Guard Environmental Office.” Accessed May 29, 2023. https://dod.hawaii.gov/env.

[27] Logan, Brigadier General Arthur J. “The Adjutant General’s Environmental Policy.” Hawaii Army National Guard, February 19, 2015. https://dod.hawaii.gov/env/files/2012/11/BGLogan_tag-policy.pdf.

[28] U.S. Army. “A Win-Win for Natural Resources, Hawaii Army National Guard in the Aloha State.” Accessed May 29, 2023. https://www.army.mil/article/201548/a_win_win_for_natural_resources_hawaii_army_national_guard_in_the_aloha_state.

[29] Hawaii Army National Guard Environmental Mission. “Hawaii Army National Guard .” Accessed May 29, 2023. https://dod.hawaii.gov/env/our-work/.

[30] “FY16 Secretary of Defense Environmental Awards.” Department of Defense, April 19, 2017. https://www.denix.osd.mil/awards/denix-files/sites/12/2017/04/2-Narrative_S-NII-HIARNG.pdf.

[31] “Hawaii Army National Guard – Accomplishments.”

[32] “Hawaii Army National Guard – Accomplishments.”

[33] Acquire Skills in Distribution. “Army National Guard.” Accessed May 29, 2023. https://www.nationalguard.com/careers/supply-and-logistics.

[34] “Army National Guard – Distribution Skills.”

[35] Subramaniam, Yogeeswari, Tajul Ariffin Masron, and Niaz Ahmad Mohd Naseem. “The Impact of Logistics on Four Dimensions of Food Security in Developing Countries.” Journal of the Knowledge Economy, October 4, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13132-022-01037-3.

[36] Napitupulu, Heri , Taufik Hidayat, Arry Bainus, and Windy Dermawan. “Food Securitization In Indonesia: The Involvement Of Indonesian Military In Food Security Program.” SPECIAL EDUCATION 2022 1, no. 43 (n.d.).

[37] Izadi, Roya. “State Security or Exploitation: A Theory of Military Involvement in the Economy.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 66, no. 4–5 (May 2022): 729–54. https://doi.org/10.1177/00220027211070574.

[38] Bainus, Arry , and Dina Yulianti. “Questioning the Paradigm of Indonesian Military Involvement in Agriculture.” Central European Journal of International and Security Studies 12, no. 4 (n.d.): 309-324.

[39] Bainus and Yulianti, “Questioning the Paradigm of Indonesian Military Involvement in Agriculture.”

[40] Napitupulu et al., “Food Securitization In Indonesia: The Involvement Of Indonesian Military In Food Security Program.”

[41] Bainus and Yulianti, “Questioning the Paradigm of Indonesian Military Involvement in Agriculture.”

[42] Bainus and Yulianti, “Questioning the Paradigm of Indonesian Military Involvement in Agriculture.”

[43] Bainus and Yulianti, “Questioning the Paradigm of Indonesian Military Involvement in Agriculture.”

[44] Bainus and Yulianti, “Questioning the Paradigm of Indonesian Military Involvement in Agriculture.”

[45] Bainus and Yulianti, “Questioning the Paradigm of Indonesian Military Involvement in Agriculture.”

[46] National Guard. “Airmen and Soldiers from Guam and Hawaii Help Rebuild Philippines School.” Accessed May 29, 2023. https://www.nationalguard.mil/News/State-Partnership-Program/Article/576545/airmen-and-soldiers-from-guam-and-hawaii-help-rebuild-philippines-school/https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nationalguard.mil%2FNews%2FArticle%2F576545%2Fairmen-and-soldiers-from-guam-and-hawaii-help-rebuild-philippines-school%2F.

[47] US Army “Ohio National Guard Assists with Mass Food Distribution.” Accessed May 29, 2023. https://www.army.mil/article/235410/ohio_national_guard_assists_with_mass_food_distribution.

[48] National Guard. “Hawaii National Guard Joins Gema Bhakti with Partner Indonesia.” Accessed May 29, 2023. https://www.nationalguard.mil/News/State-Partnership-Program/Article/3153297/hawaii-national-guard-joins-gema-bhakti-with-partner-indonesia/https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nationalguard.mil%2FNews%2FArticle%2F3153297%2Fhawaii-national-guard-joins-gema-bhakti-with-partner-indonesia%2F.

[49] Transportation Management Solutions. “The Role of Logistics Management in the Agricultural Industry | TMS,” June 1, 2020. https://www.tms-transportation.com/blogs/logistics-management-in-agriculture/.

[50] “The Role of Logistics Management in the Agricultural Industry | TMS.”

[51] Grebmer, Klaus von, Jill Bernstein, Nilam Prasai, Shazia Amin, Yisehac Yohannes, Olive Towey, Jennifer Thompson, Andrea Sonntag, Fraser Patterson, and David Nabarro. 2016 Global Hunger Index: Getting to Zero Hunger. Bonn, Washington, DC, Dublin: Welthungerhilfe ; IFPRI ; Concern Worldwide, 2016.

[52] Grebmer et al., 2016 Global Hunger Index.